Weeds & Algae Identification
Non-native plants in North Carolina waters are responsible for most weeds & algae problems in our state. The lack of natural controls and predators allows these plant species to flourish in public and private waterways. Weeds, (such as hydrilla, water hyacinth), impair the water flow of streams and rivers, they clog intakes provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes and other pests.
Unwelcome aquatic vegetation can negatively impact the health and appearance of our ponds and lakes and interfere with recreation, displace native species, and they may upset the balance of fish populations.
Weeds & Algae Control
Pond Lake management can help develop a control or elimination plan to get rid of harmful weeds & algae from your pond or lake. In the section below you will find a few of the invasive aquatic weed & algae species found In North Carolina. If you find any of these weeds in your pond or lake, give us a call today we can help return your waterway to a healthy environment with an appealing appearance.
Native: An upright perennial monocot found in the eastern U.S. Weakly rooted, with clustered fibrous roots that allow the plant to be easily pulled up. Leaves: Flat (1 in. wide), ribbonlike and joined to a round stem. Fruit: Distinctive; tight, round, green (immature) or brown (mature) “burrs” of 1 in. diameter. Habitat: Forms large colonies in shallow, slow-moving freshwater (streams, rivers, and natural wetlands). Adaptable to most soil and light conditions.
Native: A large, showy, rooted perennial with striking white flowers. Leaves: Un-notched, large (12 to 30 in. diameter), and waxy (repel water). Some leaves float upon the water surface, and others stand slightly above it. All leaves are peltate. Flowers and Seeds: The flowers are large (>12 in.), white or light yellow, and borne on long terminal spikes. The round seeds are grey-brown and are found inside large brown pods Habitat: Prefers freshwater environments, often forming very large colonies.
Invasive: Noxious in seven states
A perennial that forms large dense mats and is invasive to many agricultural and aquatic communities. Leaves: Opposite, attached to the stem, and strap to oval in shape. Stem: Usually hollow, and roots prolifically from the nodes. Flowers: White and cloverlike. Found on a short petiole at the end of the stem. Habitat: Grows rampantly in canals, ditches, wetlands, and slow-moving streams and rivers. Native to South America, but naturalized in the southeastern U.S.
Native: A genus of about 28 (mostly native) species. Typically perennial, sometimes with rhizomes. Leaves: Emersed, floating, or submersed on long petioles. Several species with arrowhead-shaped leaves. Flowers: Mostly in whorls of three on pedicels with three whiteish petals and three sepals. Roots: Several species form rhizomes with some also forming corms. Habitat: Generally a shoreline plant that grows in a large grouping. Prefers slow-moving, shallow water.
Native: A common perennial with stout rhizomes and erect stems. Widespread throughout North America. Leaves: Flat, ribbonlike,
and arise from ground level. Linear in shape, and sessile to the stem. Flowers: A brown terminal spike that persists for months. At the end of the season, the spike degrades into a white fuzzy mass. Habitat: Can reach 5 to 6 ft in height. Grows equally well on mineral and organic soils. May be considered a pest plant because it forms large colonies, excluding other plants.
Creeping Water Primrose
Invasive: Noxious in N.C., S.C., Wash.
A perennial plant distributed across the southern tier of the U.S. Stems and leaves are usually hairy. Some species have been reported to grow up to 25 ft deep. Leaves: Alternate and vary in shape from rounded to lanceolate, even on the same plant. Shoots develop in early spring. Stem: Round. Roots at nodes, and can form floating mats. Flowers: Solitary, bright fellow in color, with five petals and five sepals. Habitat: Rooted, often floating. Grows on streambanks or in shallow water. In very shallow water the plant grows upright, but in deeper water, the floating stems and leaves will be apparent on the surface.
Native: A small, floating aquatic fern. It can form a dense mat that completely covers the surface of a water body. Leaves: Leaves are velvety, small, and frilly. They overlap to create a uniform cluster of plants. Leaf color ranges from green to crimson red and may change during the season. Each leaf has two lobes, and leaves are arranged alternately along the spine
of the plant. Spores are produced on the base of the lobes. Habitat: Prefers slow-moving and shallow water. It is strictly a freshwater plant and is intolerant of saline water. The fern is common in swamps and other slow-mov-ing bodies of water. Azolla is often found growing with other duckweeds.
Native: A small, free-floating plant with one root per frond. Thick mats of duckweed are found in
ponds and slow-moving waters. The small flattened plants float on the water surface and tend to grow in dense colonies; forming floating carpets. Common duckweed is often interspersed with other varieties of duckweeds and Azolla. Leaves: Rounded or oval, and flat. Leaves are 1/10 to 1/s in. wide. Habitat: Found in clear waters, with most profuse growth in ditches and swamps that are free from currents. Dense populations can clog irrigation pumps and sprinklers.
Native: Perennial aquatic plant with rhizomes and leaves attached to a long, petiole-like stem. Leaves: Heart-shaped and typically a single leaf attached by a short petiole to a long stem. Undersides have large raised veins and a leathery texture. Fruit: An oblong capsule that contains rounded and smooth seeds. FIowers: White with wide margins. The petals are smooth on the edges. and there is no crest on the flower as is found with N. cristata. Roots: Tuberous, form clusters resembling bananas at the connection of the stem and petiole. Reproduces through these roots.
Fragrant Water Lilly
Native: A perennial with a very large rhizomatous root system and showy flowers. Leaves: Circular, with a distinct “pie slice” removed. Floating, and attached to stems under the water. Light to dark green on the top surfaces, and dark green on the underside. The venation is much more pronounced on the underside of leaves. Flowers: Conspicuous. Usually white and fragrant, but can also be pink to reddish in color. Float on the surface of the water, but are attached to the plant by long peduncles.
Native: (Invasive in California) A perennial that can form dense, floating mats. Classified as a noxious weed in California but listed as threatened or endangered in Kentucky and Maryland. Leaves: Mostly egg or heart-shaped. The underside of the floating immature leaf is covered with a spongy, cell-like texture that aids in leaf flotation. Mother plants usually have erect leaves; daughter plants may have smaller floating leaves. Flowers and Fruit: Male and female flowers, with narrow white petals, are located at or below the surface of the water. Mature fruit are borne on long peduncles. Roots: Parent plants are connected to daughter plants through extensive stolons. Each plant also has feather-like roots. Habitat: Can be found growing in shallow, slow-
moving freshwater – often rooted in the mud. It can also form dense mats in ditches and ponds.
Giant duckweeds have t\\ o or more roots per frond, unlike other duckweeds. Leaves: Measure 1 /s to ¼in.diameter and aredark green. The upper surface of each leaf may have a purple dot or slightly purple edges. The underside of each leaf may also be tinged purple. Each
leaf is rounded with a slightly pointed end. Habitat: Giant duckweed grows in swamps, ponds and bogs. It can completely cover the surface of the water and clog irrigation pumps and sprinklers. It also can be found growing with other duckweed and Azolla species. Similar Species: Other duckweeds have one root per frond, and watermeal does not have visible roots and may appear smaller than giant salvinia.
Invasive Federal noxious weed Noxious in many states: An extremely invasive exotic plant. A free-floating fern, giant salvinia can double its biomass in less than a week and may form thick (>3 ft) mats. Leaves: An identifying feature is the presence of “egg-beater” shaped leaf hairs on the upper surface of each leaf. Located beneath the green floating leaves are dark brown feathery appendages resembling roots, which are actually modified leaves. Habitat: Found in still water (drainage ditches, canals, ponds, and lakes). The widespread growth of this plant can result in impeded boat navigation and movement of water.
Native: The smallest flowering plant in the world. It appears as rootless, small green dots and may feel like grits when rubbed between fingers. Can completely cover shallow, slow-moving waterways. Habitat: Often found growing with duckweed in slow-moving water. It overwinters on the bottom of water bodies.
Native Free-floating aquatic plant with long under-water floating stems. True roots are lacking on these carnivorous plants. Distinguished by small, rounded bladders that trap tiny invertebrates. Flowers: Form on leafless emergent stalks supported by a whorl of floating branches. Flower color depends on species but is usually yellow, pink to purple, or white.
Invasive: Noxious in six states
An annual aquatic plant introduced from Europe. Shoots are brittle and readily fragment, which facilitates its spread. Leaves: Linear and opposite. Bright green or reddish with rough serrations on margins. Always submersed, and typically stacked with shorter internodes at stem tips. Habitat: Rarely occurs as a monoculture, instead mixing with other species such as hydrilla. Similar Species: May be distinguished from coontail by its opposite and unbranched leaves. Brittle naiad has opposite leaves, while those of the pondweeds are alternate.
Native:A coarse, submersed alga that resembles a vascular plant. It has a distinctive foul (musky garlic) odor when crushed. Cylindrical with whorls of 6 to 16 branchlets per node. Internodes consist of a single large cell. Each “stem” can vary in length from several inches to several feet long. The plant may also develop a calcified crust on the leaves that makes it crisp to the touch.
Native: Rootless, submerged perennial with one main highly-branched) stem. Attaches to sediment by rhizoids. Leaves: Stiff, whorled, and divided into narrow segments. The leaves are more crowded at the tips of the plant (making the tips darker), which gives it the appearance of a raccoon’s tail. Fruit: Rarely seen, are nutlets borne in the leaf axils. Habitat: May be found in dense colonies. Prefers shallow, clear water; however, it is very adaptable and can also be found in fast-moving water.
Invasive Noxious in eight states
A perennial submersed plant introduced from
Brazil. Often sold as an aquarium plant despite its invasiveness. Leaves: Linear and soft to the touch with very fine serrations on the leaf edge. The middle and upper leaves are usually found in whorls of four to six (although this can vary and is not a reliable identifying factor by itself). Stem: Circular in cross-section and slender. Flowers: Delicate, and borne upon long petioles. The petals are White, and the centers are yellow. Flowers appear on the surface of the water during the bloom season (mid-late summer). Habitat: A rooted plant, but can often be found broken off from the mother plant and floating. Highly invasive, and should be monitored closely.
Native: A delicate, perenial, submerged aquatic plant. Leaves: Smooth with no serrations and lacking petioles. Usually exist in whorls of three to seven along the entire length of the stem. Habitat: Elodea prefers slow-moving, shallow water. It is not particularly invasive, nor does
it form large colonies.
Invasive Federal noxious Weed Noxious in 17 states: A submersed, rooted, perennial aquatic plant with a very fast growth rate. The stems grow quickly to the surface of the water and spread laterally. Hydrilla is one of the most invasive plants infesting waterways in the Carolinas. There are two biotypes: monoecious and dioecious. The dioecious biotype is more robust. Leaves: Oblong, sessile, and whorled in groups of 4 to 8 around the stem. Leaf margins are serrated, and color can range from light to dark green and even reddish depending upon the environment. Reproduction: Produces fruit and turions. Rigid turions produced at the end of lateral branches. Habitat: Can form large, dense infestations, especially in cooler climates. Tolerant of brackish water.
A filamentous alga, made up of large mats of filaments that resemble human hair. Each filament is 50 µm in diameter and composed of stacks of cells. The mats are tightly woven, may be floating or submersed, and have a strong musky, earthy smell. Habitat: Lyngbya infestations may be associated with excess nutrients (calcium or phosphorus). The large floating mats are formed during warmer parts of the year. Lyngbya is present in the southeastern U.S. a11d west to Texas. Human Health Concerns: May release toxins into drinking water, and can also cause a dermatological reaction when touched.
Native: Has long, branched filaments composed of numerous cells. Floats in round aggregations that can range from 1 to 8 in. in diameter. The clumps may feel like a wet cotton ball when squeezed. Unlike many alga, Pithophora is not slimy to the touch, but rather cottony and coarse. When taken out of the water, each mass is hard to tear apart and keeps its formation. Filaments may be seen with the naked eye. Habitat: Can infest ponds and other slow-moving waters. Growth of this alga is common in summer but can persist year-round in heavier infestations. As with other algae, infestations are associated with nutrient-rich waters.
Native: A common filamentous alga that has spirals of chloroplasts within each cell. These algae can be found floating or submersed and are often tangled with other alga or plants. Spirogyra is bright green early in the season but can darken or fade over time. When held, it feels very slippery, and individual strands can be detected. Habitat: There are many species of Spirogyra, and as a result, they can grow in all types of water and habitats. These algae can quickly clog waterways due to a fast growth habit. An abundance of these algae can also negatively affect the taste of drinking water, interfere with recreation, and provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Spirogyra may be one of the first filamentous algae to start growing in the spring.
Weeds & Algae Information Sources:
- NC Cooperative Extension – Aquatic Weeds
- North Carolina State University Libraries